Urantia Book Index

Computer Analysis of Printings of The Urantia Book:
Publisher's Changes, 1955-1999

by Merritt Horn
January 2001

Changes in 117:7.4 through 196:3.29

        I.     Summary of Conclusions for the Impatient Reader
        II.    Scope of Analysis
        III.   Editorial Philosophy
        IV.   Critical Apparatus
                A.        Classification of Editorial Intent for Changes in the Text
                B.        Classification of Errors
                C.        Abbreviations; editions of The Urantia Book
        V.    Changes in Urantia Foundation editions of The Urantia Book (1955-1999)
                        Changes in 0:0.0 through 42:5.1
                        Changes in 42:6.7 through 69:3.9
                        Changes in 71:7.2 through 110:5.2
                        Changes in 117:7.4 through 196:3.29

)               117:7.4;  p.1291 ¶8                Change type: P1
        1st - 5th:                    ...of the Qualified Vicegerents of the Ultimate  [missing period]
        6th - 15th, CD:  ...of the Qualified Vicegerents of the Ultimate.  [period added]
Discussion:
        This is one of two missing periods in the first edition. (See 80:2.4)
Conclusion: 
        There was a dropped keystroke (T1 error) in the 1955 text.
)               118:6.2;  p.1299 ¶5                Change type: S2
        1st - 9th, 12th - 15th, CD:   ...the freewillness of the myriads of the children of Deity...
        10th, 11th:                                 ...the free-willness of the myriads of the children of Deity...
Discussion:
        Free-willness is found at four other locations in the text and all in instances refers to an attribute or characteristic of a being or beings.  Freewill and free will each occur numerous times—the former as an adjective (modifying such words as choice, action, or  personality), while the two-word form is used when free modifies will itself (i.e. when will is under discussion).  In light of these consistent usages, conforming this variant is appropriate as the original was probably the result of a dropped hyphen.
Conclusion: 
        There was a dropped keystroke (T1 error) in the 1955 text.
)               118:7.5;  p.1301 ¶2                Change type: S2/S6
        1st - 6th:                            Only as a creature becomes God identified...
        7th - 15th, CD:          Only as a creature becomes God-identified...
Discussion:
        Although God identified here, and its only related form, God identification (at 111:1.6) are both open (separate words) in the 1955 text, the guidelines within the Chicago Manual provide a good argument for both being hyphenated.  In each case a single concept is referred to, and the missing hyphen causes the unsuspecting reader to stumble (albeit briefly) by suggesting here, “...as a creature becomes God...” and at 111:1.6, “...the exquisite melodies of God...”
        Further, at the present location, the comparison with God-unidentified in the prior sentence is being made.
Conclusion: 
        The original text was not in error, but the hyphenated form would have been better.
)               119:7.6;  p.1317 ¶2                Change type: M2
        1st:                           These men of God visited the newborn child in the manger.
        2nd - 15th, CD:These men of God visited the newborn child.
Discussion:
        Presumably, this change was made because the original seems to be inconsistent with the narrative of Jesus’ birth in 122:8, which states that three wise men from the east visited Jesus when he was almost three weeks old—about the time the family left the inn and over two weeks after they had moved out of the stable.
        However, it is certainly possible that Joseph and Mary might have taken the manger with them up to the room in the inn in order to continue to have a cradle for Jesus. The need for a cradle would have been no less in the room than in the stable, and if the manger was portable, as small feed-boxes often are, moving it along with the family seems quite reasonable.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text required no “correction.”
)               121:7.3;  p.1340 ¶1                Change type: S1
        1st - 10th:          ...one who did not hestitate to clash with dogmas...
        11th - 15th, CD:        ...one who did not hesitate to clash with dogmas...
Discussion:
        See note at 79:3.5.
Conclusion: 
        There was an extra keystroke (T2 error) in the 1955 text.
)               123:2.3;  p.1357 ¶7                Change type: S1
        1st:                           ...one month before his fifth birthday anniversay...
        2nd - 15th. CD:...one month before his fifth birthday anniversary...
Discussion:
        See note at 79:3.5.
Conclusion: 
        There was a dropped keystroke (T1 error) in the 1955 text.
)               123:5.12;  p.1363 ¶5              Change type: M3
        1st:                           Far to the east they could discern the Jordan valley and, far beyond, the rocky hills of Moab.
        2nd - 15th, CD:Far to the east they could discern the Jordan valley and far beyond lay the rocky hills of Moab.
Discussion:
        As others have suggested, the March, 1959 letter from Rev. Benjamin Adams may well have provided the impetus for the change made here.  [Rev. Adams: “But the rocky hills of Moab were not east of Nazareth but east of the Dead Sea.”]  Setting aside (as throughout these notes) a discussion of the nature of the editorial policy which allowed such changes to be made, an analysis of the 1955 text shows that there was no need to “correct” it in any case because the author of the paper does not state that the hills of Moab are east of Nazareth.
        The context for this sentence is the “panoramic view” from atop the Nazareth hill:  Jesus and his father are standing on top of the hill and are moving their gaze from Mt. Carmel in the northwest around an arc to the north, east, south and west.  Mt. Hermon is to their north, and from springs in its foothills near Dan (northeast of Nazareth) the Jordan valley extends to the Dead Sea in the south.  Thus, as Jesus and Joseph follow the line of the river valley along the arc of their survey, as the Jordan approaches the Dead Sea, father and son “discern...far beyond, the rocky hills of Moab.”
        This interpretation is further supported by the punctuation of the following sentence which does not read “Also, to the south and the east,...” (suggesting a change in direction from the last reference), but rather, “Also to the south and the east,...” which implies that the last referenced location (Moab) was in the same direction.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is correct.
)               124:1.12;  p.1368 ¶1              Change type: S2
        1st - 9th, 12th - 14th, CD:   ...on pleasure or business to nearby Cana, Endor, and Nain.
        10th, 11th, 15th:                         ...on pleasure or business to near-by Cana, Endor, and Nain.
Discussion:
        All other instances of near-by as an adjective are hyphenated; adverbs are open (near by), and the closed form, originally found here, is otherwise entirely absent from the text.  Consistent usage would therefore support this change.
Conclusion: 
        There was a dropped hyphen (T1 error) in the 1955 text.
)               126:1.2;  p.1387 ¶2                Change type: S4
        1st,   2nd:                          Not far away he could look upon Tannach,...
        3rd - 15th, CD:         Not far away he could look upon Taanach,...
Discussion:
        The corrected spelling is the standard transliteration of the name.
Conclusion: 
        There was a mistaken keystroke (T3 error) in the 1955 text.
)               126:1.5;  p.1387 ¶5                Change type: S1
        1st:                           ...some superhuman or miraculous peformance, but always...
        2nd - 15th, CD:...some superhuman or miraculous performance, but always...
Discussion:
        See note at 79:3.5.
Conclusion: 
        There was a dropped keystroke (T1 error) in the 1955 text.
)               130:6.3;  p.1438 ¶0                Change type: S2
        1st - 9th, 12th - 15th, CD:   ...its abject fear‑slave and the bond-servant of depression...
        10th, 11th:                                 ...its abject fear‑slave and the bond servant of depression...
Discussion:
        As discussed in greater detail in the note for 162:7.2, bond servant is found in three different forms in the first edition.  The only form found in our primary references is the open form (bond servant) in Webster’s.  Although the hyphenated version could not be considered incorrect, and at this location it parallels fear-slave  to good effect, database standardization around the open form would be reasonable.
Conclusion: 
        Database standardization could justify this change if consistently implemented.
)               133:7.9;  p.1480 ¶1                Change type: S1/S2
        1st - 9th, 12th - 15th, CD:   ...functioning of a consciousness sorter and associater...
        10th, 11th:                                 ...functioning of a consciousness sorter and associator...
Discussion:
        While the meaning of associater is clear and that variant is found in a reference dating to 1626 in the OED, it is probably the result of a keystroke error because the common form, associator, is the unanimous usage elsewhere in the text. [Unlike other archaic English words occasionally used in The Urantia Book to convey unique meanings (e.g., inconcussible at 118:3.3), the ancient word-form associater did not convey a meaning distinct from associator and no such differentiation is apparent here.]
        The original spelling may have been caused by a typist’s inadvertent repetition of the er pattern from sorter.
Conclusion: 
        There was an incorrect keystroke (T3 error) in the 1955 text.
)               134:7.5;  p.1492 ¶5                Change type: S4
        1st:                           ...Sychar, Schecham, Samaria, Geba,...
        2nd - 15th, CD:...Sychar, Shechem, Samaria, Geba,...
Discussion:
        The standard transliteration is Shechem. [A similar problem occurred at 186:3.2.]
Conclusion: 
        An extra keystroke was inserted (T2) and a wrong keystroke (T3) was made.
)               137:2.9;  p.1527 ¶3                Change type: C1
        1st:                           ...in the form of the ten commandments and other mottoes...
        2nd  - 15th, CD:        ...in the form of the Ten Commandments and other mottoes...
Discussion:
        See discussion in note for 96:4.4.
Conclusion: 
        For the reasons cited in earlier note, the 1955 text probably reflects the original manuscript.
)               138:7.4;  p.1544 ¶3                Change type: S2
        1st - 9th, 12th - 14th, CD:   ...this was their first clearcut and positive intimation...
        10th, 11th, 15th:                         ...this was their first clear‑cut and positive intimation...
Discussion:
        This word is found eight additional times; all are hyphenated.
Conclusion: 
        The hyphen was missing (a T1 error) in the 1955 text; database standardization, if consistent, is appropriate.
)               139:12.1;  p.1566 ¶0              Change type: P1
        1st - 6th:            Judas' parents were Sadducees, and when their son...
        7th - 15th, CD:  Judas's parents were Sadducees, and when their son...
Discussion:
        The correct form is Judas’s and it is found that way at all other locations except 177:4.9.
Conclusion: 
        There was a missing s in the 1955 text (T1 error).
)               139:12.12;  p.1567 ¶5            Change type: S2
        1st - 9th, 12th - 14th, CD:   ...in these lucid intervals he faintheartedly conceived,...
        10th, 11th, 15th:                         ...in these lucid intervals he faint-heartedly conceived,...    
Discussion:
        Usage is split between the two forms in the 1955 text.  Though Webster’s supports the closed form, the OED suggests using the hyphen and it is clear from the history of usage documented there that both forms have been commonly used.  Database standardization is appropriate here, and this editor suggests that the hyphenated form be used for clarity’s sake—in its closed form the word may cause the reader to momentarily stumble over the th at the joining of the words.  (see also 190:3.1)
Conclusion: 
        The original text was not in error, but database standardization is appropriate.
)               140:8.9;  p.1583 ¶4                Change type: S6
        1st - 9th, 12th - 14th, CD:   He was liberal, bighearted, learned, and tolerant.
        10th, 11th, 15th:                         He was liberal, big-hearted, learned, and tolerant.
Discussion:
        The only other occurrence of this word is at 139:9.8, where it is hyphenated.  Given that this compound could not be considered common in current usage, the hyphenated form is preferable.
Conclusion: 
        The original text was not in error, but database standardization is appropriate.
)               142:8.4;  p.1606 ¶1                Change type: S6
        1st - 9th, 12th - 14th, CD:   The Sabbath week ends they usually spent with Lazarus...
        10th, 11th, 15th:                         The Sabbath weekends they usually spent with Lazarus...
Discussion:
        The two-word form is supported by Webster’s; the hyphenated form (week-end) by the OED, but the closed form is not found in any of the contemporary sources.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is correct.
)               147:5.1;  p.1651 ¶5                Change type: S2
        1st - 9th, 12th - 14th, CD:   He was a half-hearted believer, and notwithstanding...
        10th, 11th, 15th:                         He was a halfhearted believer, and notwithstanding...
Discussion:
        The closed form is the unanimous usage elsewhere in the text, so database standardization is reasonable.
Conclusion: 
        The original was not in error, but standardization is appropriate.
)               149:6.12;  p.1677 ¶1              Change type: M1
        1st:                           Of all the sorrows of a trusting man, none are so terrible...
        2nd - 15th, CD:Of all the sorrows of a trusting man, none is so terrible...
Discussion:
        As at 55:12.5, the original is correct; none commonly takes a plural verb.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is correct.
)               151:6.2;  p.1695 ¶5                Change type: S2
        1st - 9th, 13th, 14th, CD:    ...with fetters and chains and confined in one of the grottos.
        10th - 12th, 15th:                ...with fetters and chains and confined in one of the grottoes.
Discussion:
        Though both forms are correct, this word is found elsewhere in the text as grottoes.  Therefore, database standardization would be reasonable.
Conclusion: 
        The original was not in error, but standardization is appropriate.
)               152:3.2;  p.1702 ¶3                Change type: S2
        1st - 9th, 12th - 14th, CD:   ...but you are short-sighted and material‑minded.
        10th, 11th, 15th:                         ...but you are shortsighted and material‑minded.
Discussion:
        The closed form is the unanimous usage elsewhere, so database standardization would be reasonable.
Conclusion: 
        The original was not in error, but standardization is appropriate.
)               153:1.7;  p.1709 ¶1                Change type: S5
        1st - 9th, 12th - 14th, CD:   Jairus' only reply to all this pleading was:...
        10th, 11th, 15th:                         Jairus's only reply to all this pleading was:...
Discussion:
        The corrected form is supported by usage elsewhere and by the general rules in the Chicago Manual regarding the formation of possessives for ancient names.
Conclusion: 
        There was a missing s in the 1955 text (T1 error).
)               158:4.6;  p.1756 ¶3                Change type: P2
        1st, 2nd:                     Come out of him you unclean spirit;...
        3rd - 15th, CD:Come out of him, you unclean spirit;...
Discussion:
        While a comma here is not unreasonable, it is also not necessary.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text does not need correction.
)               158:7.1;  p.1759 ¶3                Change type: P2
        1st - 6th:                    The apostles had slept very little that night; so they were up early...
        7th - 15th, CD:  The apostles had slept very little that night, so they were up early...
Discussion:
        The stronger separation created by the semi-colon may be unnecessary, but it is also not incorrect.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text does not need correction.
)               159:1.3;  p.1763 ¶0                Change type: P2
        1st - 6th:                    ...whatsoever you shall decree on earth, shall be recognized in heaven.
        7th - 15th, CD:  ...whatsoever you shall decree on earth shall be recognized in heaven.
Discussion:
        This is another case of reasonable punctuation by the author that hardly stands in need of correction by an editor.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text does not need correction.
)               162:2.3;  p.1791 ¶1                Change type: C2
        1st - 6th:                    By refusing to hear me, you are refusing to receive Him who sends me.
        7th - 15th, CD:  By refusing to hear me, you are refusing to receive him who sends me.
Discussion:
        Capitalization of Him at this point is correct usage and is required for clarity. (See note for 3:1.12.)
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is correct.
)               162:2.3;  p.1791 ¶1                Change type: C2
        1st - 6th:                    You, if you will receive this gospel, shall come to know Him who sent me.
        7th - 15th, CD:  You, if you will receive this gospel, shall come to know him who sent me.
Discussion:
        Capitalization of Him at this point is correct usage and is required for clarity. (See note for 3:1.12.)
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is correct.
)               162:2.4;  p.1791 ¶2                Change type: P2
        1st:                           ...wonderful than this Jesus of Nazareth has already done?”
        2nd - 15th, CD:...wonderful than this Jesus of Nazareth has already done.”
Discussion:
        While it may be true that the sentence is declarative, the question mark does seem to more acceptably convey the wondering attitude of the people, and it does not confuse the reader.  In the absence of compelling evidence that an error has been made, any reasonable punctuation in the 1955 text should be left alone—as the presumed choice of the author.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 punctuation does not require correction.
)               162:2.7;  p.1792 ¶1                Change type: C2
        1st - 6th:                    In just a short time I go to Him who sent me into this world.
        7th - 15th, CD:  In just a short time I go to him who sent me into this world.
Discussion:
        The original is supported by the Chicago Manual and by consistent usage in The Urantia Book.  See note for  3:1.12 for full discussion.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is correct.
)               162:5.2;  p.1795 ¶1                Change type: M1
        1st,   2nd:                  You only judge by the appearances of the flesh;...
        3rd - 15th, CD:You judge only by the appearances of the flesh;...
Discussion:
        While the modified construction may represent adverbial placement “by the rules,” the original is perfectly intelligible and conforms with ordinary usage.  Regarding the placement of only, Fowler’s A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926), among other examples, cites the common, “He only died a week ago,” in which, technically (as in the subject phrase), the author ought to have located only after the verb: “He died only a week ago.”  Fowler, however, rejects the absolutism of “orthodoxy” and concludes:
“The advice offered is this: there is an orthodox position for the adverb, easily determined in case of need; to choose another position that may spoil or obscure the meaning is bad; but a change of position that has no such effect except technically is both justified by historical and colloquial usage and often demanded by rhetorical needs.”
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is clear, and well within the bounds of normal usage.
)               162:7.2;  p.1796 ¶4                Change type: S2
        1st - 9th:            ...who commits sin is the bond-servant of sin. [line break at hyphen]
        10th, 11th:...who commits sin is the bond servant of sin. [identical line break w/ no hyphen]
        12th - 15th:        ...who commits sin is the bondservant of sin. [no line break]
        CD:         ...who commits sin is the bond-servant of sin. [no line break]
Discussion:
        In the 1955 text, this word is hyphenated and is broken at the hyphen to begin a new line of type, so it is impossible to determine whether bond-servant or bondservant was intended.  The only form that the type (as set) could not have represented was bond servant.  In the following sentence, bondservant is found as one word, so it would be a reasonable assumption that the same closed form was intended here. Both bond servant and bond‑servant are found once elsewhere in the Urantia papers (69:5.8 and 130:6.3, respectively). In the 10th and 11th Urantia Foundation printings, both occurrences in the present paragraph were separated into two words, as was the 130:6.3 instance, thus standardizing all four to the two-word format.  Database standardization would be reasonable for this word, but the electronic editions and the printed texts subsequent to the 11th have diverged (as noted).
Conclusion: 
        Database standardization, if consistently applied, would be reasonable, though the original text was not in error.
)               162:7.2;  p.1796 ¶4                Change type: S2
        1st - 9th, 12th - 15th, CD:   And you know that the bondservant is not likely...
        10th, 11th                                  And you know that the bond servant is not likely...
Discussion:
        No line break is found here in any edition.  See previous note for more information.
Conclusion: 
        Database standardization, if consistently applied, would be reasonable, though the original text was not in error.
)               164:5.6;  p.1816 ¶3                Change type: P2
        1st - 10th, 12th - 15th, CD:With the two apostles and Josiah the Master went back to Pella.
        11th:                                         With the two apostles and Josiah, the Master went back to Pella.
Discussion:
        A comma could assist the reader in phrasing the sentence, but it is hardly necessary.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text does not require correction.
)               165:0.3;  p.1817 ¶3                Change type: S4
        1st:                           ...from these regions during the times of Judas Maccabeus.
        2nd - 15th, CD:...from these regions during the times of Judas Maccabee.
Discussion:
        Although Maccabeus is a more accurate transliteration of the Greek, Maccabee is very common in English works and is used in all other occurrences of the word in the Urantia papers.  Database standardization is appropriate reasonable here.
Conclusion: 
        Database standardization is reasonable, though the original text was not in error.
)               166:3.4;  p.1829 ¶1                Change type: P2
        1st, 2nd:                     Lord open to us; we would also be great in the kingdom.
        3rd - 15th, CD:Lord, open to us; we would also be great in the kingdom.
Discussion:
        In the original format, Lord was the last word in the line, making a dropped comma not unlikely.  It is possible that the comma was simply viewed as unnecessary within such a short phrase, and it should also be noted that while the use of the comma in direct address is regarded as standard, the Chicago Manual was silent on the matter until its 12th edition (1969).
Conclusion: 
        It cannot be determined whether an error in typesetting was made here, but the end-of-line location tips the balance in favor of making the change adopted in the 3rd printing.
)               167:4.3;  p.1837 ¶2                Change type: P2
        1st - 10th, 12th - 15th, CD:...so that on the second, or even the third, day such a one...
        11th:                                         ...so that on the second, or even the third day such a one...
Discussion:
        Although the second comma seems clumsy, it is required to enclose the parenthetical phrase or even the third.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is correct.
)               167:5.3;  p.1839 ¶0                Change type: S2
        1st - 9th, 12th - 15th, CD:   ...he had become enamoured of a better‑looking woman.
        10th, 11th:                                 ...he had become enamored of a better‑looking woman.
Discussion:
        This word is also found at 121:5.6; there, the American spelling,  enamored, is used.  Both forms are acceptable, though database standardization would justify the choice of one over the other.
Conclusion: 
        Database standardization, if consistently applied, would be reasonable, though the original text was not in error.
)               168:0.2;  p.1842 ¶2                Change type: D1/S6
        1st, 2nd, 10th, 11th, 15th:             ...and Mary sent word to Jesus concerning Lazarus's illness,...
        3rd - 9th, 12th - 14th, CD:  ...and Mary sent word to Jesus concerning Lazarus' illness,...
Discussion:
        The original version, Lazarus’s, is correct.  Although the missing final s in the 3rd through 9th printings might have originally been due to a database conversion error, it is not known why the incorrect form was again adopted for the softcover and electronic editions.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is correct.
)               168:3.7;  p.1847 ¶7                Change type: S4
        1st - 3rd:            ...with friends in Bethpage, a hamlet near Bethany.
        4th - 15th, CD:  ...with friends in Bethphage, a hamlet near Bethany.
Discussion:
        The 1955 text uses Bethpage in all thirteen occurrences of this word.  In the 4th printing, the original was changed to Bethphage here, and at ten other locations; the remaining two were changed in the 9th printing.  These changes were presumably made because Bethphage is the spelling found in English Bibles since the Authorized Version (King James) of 1611. While the apparent misspelling in The Urantia Book is not theologically or historically significant, it seems unlikely to the present editor that so many identical typographical errors could have occurred, so the spelling Bethpage must have been used in the original manuscript.
        Whenever names are translated from one language into another (based on the name’s sound rather than its meaning), different transliterations are often chosen by different translators because it can be difficult to transfer sounds precisely from one language to another.  Some modern examples would be Peking/Beijing, Cambodia/Kampuchea and Ceylon/Sri Lanka.  This phenomenon also occurs when translating ancient names into modern languages: Akenaton/Ikhnaton, Jerome/Hieronymus, Nimrod/Nimrud, Beth Shean/Beth Sha'an/Beth Shan, Khufu/Chefren, etc.
        The Greek form of the word in question is #02N"(Z.  It is found in only 3 places in the New Testament (Mat. 21:1, Mk 11:1, Lk 19:29). Using standard transliteration principles, it would become Bethphage in English, and that is how it is found in modern Bibles.  However, the usual rules for transliteration do not always produce the most accurate rendering of the original, and may be overruled when appropriate.  An example closely related to the present case is the word 5"N"D<"bµ: if transliterated by the same standard rules, it would become Capharnaum, but The Urantia Book and English Bibles use Capernaum instead. Why? 5"N"D<"bµ is found throughout the New Testament; it is hard to talk about Jesus without talking about 5"N"D<"bµ. So it is natural that translators would attend more carefully to accuracy of transliteration and to ease of vocalization in English. It is this editor’s belief that that is precisely what the authors of The Urantia Book did when they chose Bethpage over Bethphage. The former is a more accurate approximation of the Greek original, is much easier for English speakers to say, and doesn’t sound like a type of plague.
        [As to the origin of the general error of converting N into the f sound in English:  In Latin, ph was used to replace the Greek N and was pronounced properly as an aspirated consonant (as in uphill).  However, English speakers pronounced Greek N and Latin ph as f because of a mistaken inference from certain Latin and Greek cognates such as frater/ND"JZD.  This conversion is well-evidenced in common English words such as philosophy and pharmacy, but it is not accurate, and certainly does not need to be adopted for an unfamiliar place name like #02N"(Z/Bethpage.]
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)               168:5.1;  p.1849 ¶5                Change type: M2
        1st:                           ...until the day of the crucifixion of Jesus,...
        2nd - 15th, CD:...until the week of the crucifixion of Jesus,...
Discussion:
        The change from day to week was made, because the former is inconsistent with the ensuing narrative (at 174:0.1, 175:3.1, and  177:5.3) which would place the time of Lazarus’s flight between Tuesday at midnight (when his death was decreed by the Sanhedrin) and Wednesday evening (when “certain ones” at the camp “knew that Lazarus had taken hasty flight from Bethany”)—two days before the crucifixion of Jesus.
        Other than a mistaken pre-publication (E1) change, this editor does not presently have a theory to explain this problem with the 1955 text.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text appears to be inconsistent with itself at this point; the origin of the error is not known.
)               169:3.2;  p.1855 ¶0                Change type: M1
        1st, 2nd:                     ...a certain beggar named Lazarus, who laid at this rich man's gate,...
        3rd - 15th, CD:...a certain beggar named Lazarus, who lay at this rich man's gate,...
Discussion:
        This sentence, as structured, does require lay rather than laid, the former being the past tense of the intransitive verb to lie; the latter being the past of the transitive verb to lay.  However, it is this editor’s opinion that the error here is not poor grammar by the author, but a lost word in transcription.  The authors of Part IV of The Urantia Book generally follow the text of the American Standard Version (ASV) of 1901, with certain modernizations and corrections as needed.  The ASV text of Luke 16:19-21 is as follows:
“Now there was a certain rich man, and he was clothed in purple and fine linen, faring sumptuously every day: and a certain beggar named Lazarus was laid at his gate, full of sores, and desiring to be fed with the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table; yea, even the dogs came and licked his sores.”  [emphasis added]
The passage from The Urantia Book follows the ASV very closely:
“There was a certain rich man named Dives, who, being clothed in purple and fine linen, lived in mirth and splendor every day. And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, who laid at this rich man's gate, covered with sores and desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table; yes, even the dogs came and licked his sores.”  [emphasis added]
        If the ASV narrative provides the structure for the subject passage, the grammatical problem observed in the original text was caused by the inadvertent loss of the was that should have immediately preceded laid.
        Another logical support for this argument is based on the beggar’s inability to fend for himself.  If “even the dogs came and licked his sores,” he surely would have been carried to the rich man’s gate by others, who would then have laid him there.
Conclusion: 
        There was a T6 error made here at some point in the preparation of the text, and “who was laid” became “who laid.”
)       172:0.2;  p.1878 ¶2                Change type: S4
        1st - 3rd:            ...the common folks of Bethany and Bethpage did their best...
        4th - 15th, CD:  ...the common folks of Bethany and Bethphage did their best...
Discussion:
        See note for 168:3.7.
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)       172:1.2;  p.1878 ¶5                Change type: S4
        1st - 8th:                    ...all Bethany and Bethpage joined in celebrating...
        9th - 15th, CD:  ...all Bethany and Bethphage joined in celebrating...
Discussion:
        See note for 168:3.7.
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)       172:3.6;  p.1881 ¶4                Change type: S4
        1st - 3rd:            ...directing them to go over to Bethpage,...
        4th - 15th, CD:  ...directing them to go over to Bethphage,...
Discussion:
        See note for 168:3.7.
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)       172:3.6;  p.1881 ¶4                Change type: S4
        1st - 3rd:            Go to Bethpage, and when you come...
        4th - 15th, CD:  Go to Bethphage, and when you come...
Discussion:
        See note for 168:3.7.
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)       172:3.6;  p.1881 ¶4                Change type: S4
        1st - 3rd:            ...when the two apostles had gone into Bethpage...
        4th - 15th, CD:  ...when the two apostles had gone into Bethphage...
Discussion:
        See note for 168:3.7.
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)       172:4.3;  p.1883 ¶5                Change type: S4
        1st - 3rd:                    ...among their friends in Bethany and Bethpage.
        4th - 15th, CD:          ...among their friends in Bethany and Bethphage.
Discussion:
        See note for 168:3.7.
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)       172:5.2;  p.1884 ¶1                Change type: S5
        1st, 2nd:                     ...some of the twelve whom he knew were armed with swords;...
        3rd - 15th, CD:...some of the twelve who he knew were armed with swords;...
Discussion:
        The pronoun is the subject of the verb were armed, not the object of knew; therefore who is the correct form (see also 177:5.2).  To illustrate:
                ...some of the twelve whom he knew Peter had armed...[he knew Peter had armed them]
...some of the twelve who he knew were armed...           [he knew they were armed]
Conclusion: 
        Either a T2 (extra keystroke) error, or an E2 (mistakenly “corrected” grammar) error occurred here, causing whom to appear in the 1955 text. (There is also an identical error two sentences prior to this which was corrected in the Uversa Press edition.)
)       175:1.20;  p.1908 ¶4              Change type: C2
        1st - 6th:                    ...while you plot to destroy Him of whom they spoke.
        7th - 15th, CD:  ...while you plot to destroy him of whom they spoke.
Discussion:
        Capitalization of Him at this point is correct usage and is required for clarity. (See note for 3:1.12.)
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is correct.
)       176:4.1;  p.1918 ¶4                Change type: P2
        1st - 5th:                    ...his seventh and last bestowal, as a mortal of the realm.
        6th - 15th, CD:  ...his seventh and last bestowal as a mortal of the realm.
Discussion:
        The comma is required to give the sentence its correct meaning:
Urantia was the place of Michael’s seventh and last bestowal, as a mortal of the realm. [the seventh bestowal—the one in which he was a mortal of the realm ]
        Not:
Urantia was the place of Michael’s seventh and last bestowal as a mortal of the realm. [his seventh bestowal as a mortal]
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is correct.
)       177:3.7;  p.1924 ¶3                Change type: S3
        1st:                           ...why he would be willing to forego the great advantage...
        2nd - 15th, CD:...why he would be willing to forgo the great advantage...
Discussion:
        Although forgo is etymologically preferable, forego has been in use for over 400 years and leads to no confusion;  forego is also found at two other locations in the text, while forgo is absent altogether.  In addition, forego appears (for the first time for either form) as the preference in the 11th edition (1949) of the Chicago Manual (§122).
Conclusion: 
        The usage in the 1955 text is consistent and reasonable.
)       177:4.9;  p.1926 ¶2                Change type: S6
        1st, 2nd,11th,13th,14th:                ...Judas's betrayal of Jesus was the cowardly act...
        3rd - 10th, 12th, 15th, CD:...Judas' betrayal of Jesus was the cowardly act...
Discussion:
        The correct form is Judas’s and it is found that way at all locations in the 1955 text except 139:12.1.  It is not known why the correct form was changed in the first place, or why it has been changed and changed back again so many times in recent printings.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is correct.
)       177:5.2;  p.1927 ¶3                Change type: S5
        1st, 2nd:                     ...still others whom you think love the truth will be scattered,...
        3rd - 15th, CD:...still others who you think love the truth will be scattered,...
Discussion:
        This is a situation similar to that found at 172:5.2.  The pronoun concerned is the subject of  love, not the object of think; therefore who is the correct form.  To illustrate:
        ...others whom you think Jesus loved...   [you think Jesus loved them ]
                ...others who you think love the truth...   [you think they love the truth]
Conclusion: 
        Either a T2 (extra keystroke) error, or an E2 (mistakenly “corrected” grammar) error occurred here, causing whom to appear in the 1955 text.
)       179:5.9;  p.1943 ¶2                Change type: M2
        1st:                           ...he said to the twelve: “And as often as you do this,...
        2nd -15th, CD:  ...he said to the apostles: “And as often as you do this,...
Discussion:
        There were only eleven apostles still present for the establishment of the remembrance supper because Judas had left earlier; so the twelve of the 1955 text was incorrect, and was changed to apostles to make this sentence consistent with the rest of the narrative.
        The error may have originated either as an inadvertent pattern error (T5) for either eleven or apostles, or through an E1 error (the conscious but mistaken “correction” of the original based on the assumption that an earlier T5 error had occurred).
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text contained either a T5 or E1 error.
)       183:4.3;  p.1976 ¶1                Change type: S4
        1st - 3rd:            ... went into hiding at Bethpage and Bethany.
        4th - 15th, CD:  ... went into hiding at Bethphage and Bethany.
Discussion:
        See note for 168:3.7.
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)       184:3.1;  p.1982 ¶2                Change type: S6
        1st - 9th,12th, CD:             ...on informal charges of law-breaking, blasphemy,...
        10th, 11th, 13th - 15th:        ...on informal charges of lawbreaking, blasphemy,...
Discussion:
        Of the five occurrences of lawbreak[er] [-ing] in the text, three are closed and two are hyphenated.  There is no differential in meaning indicated by the two forms, so database standardization is appropriate.  (Note, however, that the electronic texts do not reflect this standardization.)
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text was not in error, but database standardization, if consistently applied, justifies this change.
)       184:3.12;  p.1983 ¶7              Change type: S6
        1st - 9th,12th, CD:             ...be done with this law-breaker and blasphemer?
        10th, 11th, 13th - 15th:        ...be done with this lawbreaker and blasphemer?
Discussion:
        See note for 184:3.1.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text was not in error, but database standardization, if consistently applied, justifies this change.
)       186:3.2;  p.2001 ¶0                Change type: S4
        1st:                           ...Philadelphia, Sidon, Schechem, Hebron, Damascus, and Alexandria.
        2nd - 15th, CD:...Philadelphia, Sidon, Shechem, Hebron, Damascus, and Alexandria.
Discussion:
        The standard transliteration is Shechem. [A similar problem occurred at 134:7.5.]
Conclusion: 
        An extra keystroke was inserted (T2) in the 1955 text.
)       186:5.5;  p.2002 ¶6                Change type: P2
        1st:                           ...throughout the universe of universes, have existed from eternity;...
        2nd - 15th, CD:...throughout the universe of universes have existed from eternity;...
Discussion:
        This comma is not appropriate as found in the 1955 text.  Either it was inserted in error (a T2 mistake), or a second comma earlier in the sentence was inadvertently dropped (a T1 error).  In this editor’s view, the latter explanation is more likely; and the missing comma would have been located immediately following Maker, which would create an enclosed parenthetical statement.  The complete sentence would read as follows:
“These touching and divinely beautiful relations between man and his Maker, on this world and on all others throughout the universe of universes, have existed from eternity; and they are not in any sense dependent on these periodic bestowal enactments of the Creator Sons of God, who thus assume the nature and likeness of their created intelligences as a part of the price which they must pay for the final acquirement of unlimited sovereignty over their respective local universes.”
Conclusion: 
        Either a T1 or a T2 error exists in the 1955 text.
)       189:4.1;  p.2025 ¶2                Change type: S4
        1st - 3rd:            ...going to the home of Simon in Bethpage,...
        4th - 15th, CD:  ...going to the home of Simon in Bethphage,...
Discussion:
        See note for 168:3.7.
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)       190:2.5;  p.2032 ¶3                Change type: S4
        1st - 8th:                    ...even while they looked for him at Bethpage,...
        9th - 15th, CD:  ...even while they looked for him at Bethphage,...
Discussion:
        See note for 168:3.7.
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)       190:3.1;  p.2033 ¶1                Change type: S6
        1st - 9th, 12th -14th, CD:    ...strengthen those who are fainthearted and fear‑ridden.
        10th, 11th, 15th:                 ...strengthen those who are faint-hearted and fear‑ridden.
Discussion:
        See note for 139:12.12.
Conclusion: 
        The original text was not in error, but database standardization is appropriate.
)       191:0.1;  p.2037 ¶1                Change type: S4
        1st - 3rd:            Thomas was brooding over his troubles alone at Bethpage.
        4th - 15th, CD:  Thomas was brooding over his troubles alone at Bethphage.
Discussion:
        See note for 168:3.7.
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)       191:0.13;  p.2039 ¶0              Change type: S4
        1st - 3rd:            John Mark located Thomas at the home of Simon in Bethpage...
        4th - 15th, CD:  John Mark located Thomas at the home of Simon in Bethphage...
Discussion:
        See note for 168:3.7.
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)       191:0.13;  p.2039 ¶0              Change type: S4
        1st - 3rd:            ...John went over to Bethpage and brought him back with them.
        4th - 15th, CD:  ...John went over to Bethphage and brought him back with them.
Discussion:
        See note for 168:3.7.
Conclusion:
        The 1955 spelling was intended by the authors and needs no revision.
)       192:4.5;  p.2051 ¶2                Change type: S6
        1st - 9th, 12th - 14th, CD:   This was a sad home‑coming for John Mark.
        10th, 11th, 15th:                         This was a sad homecoming for John Mark.
Discussion:
        The only other instance of home-coming in the text (at 150:7.3) is broken at the hyphen by the end of a line, so it could support either spelling.  Only the hyphenated form is found in Webster’s, and the Chicago Manual gives no guidance.  The original should therefore have been left alone.
Conclusion: 
        The 1955 text is correct.
)       195:3.10;  p.2074 ¶5              Change type: S4
        1st:                           Poutaenus taught Clement and then went on to follow Nathaniel...
        2nd -15th, CD:  Pantaenus taught Clement and then went on to follow Nathaniel...
Discussion:
        The correct spelling of this name is Pantaenus; Dr. Sadler, in a March 17, 1959 letter to the Reverend Benjamin Adams of San Francisco, suggested the possible source of the error:
“I think the spelling of the name of the teacher in Alexandria is undoubtedly an error in transcribing the manuscript into typewriting.  An “an” was undoubtedly transcribed as an “ou”.  I remember when we were sometimes in doubt as to whether a letter was an “n” or a “u” in the manuscript.  Of course, we who were preparing this matter, did not know the name of this teacher so could have easily made this mistake.”
Conclusion: 
        Two incorrect letters were present in the 1955 text.  There is evidence to support a T7 (mistaken reading of the manuscript) error.
)       196:3.29;  p.2097 ¶3              Change type: P1
        1st:                           And the spirit of the Father is in his Son’s sons—mortal men.
        2nd - 15th, CD:And the spirit of the Father is in his Sons’ sons—mortal men
Discussion:
        Sons’ does appear to be correct in view of the context.
Conclusion: 

        A T4 error (transposed keystrokes) was present in the 1955 text.